Education in Germany
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<br><br>Education in Germany has a classic structure, which includes 3 levels: preschool, secondary and higher.<br><br>Each state in Germany has its own law on education, so the organization of education and the nuances of obtaining certificates and diplomas can vary significantly. For example, in Berlin and Brandenburg, children attend primary school for 6 years, and in the rest of the country for 4 years.<br>Preschool education<br>Most German children start attending preschool (German: Kindergarten) at the age of 3. In some kindergartens, there are nurseries (German Kinderkrippe), which accept pupils from the age of six months, but it is quite difficult to get into them. Most often, places in a nursery go to children from single-parent families.<br><br>Kindergarten fees are set by local authorities. For example, in Berlin and Bavaria, kindergartens are free, while in Lower Saxony, parents pay about 250 euros per month. Low-income families and large families in all states of Germany are provided with significant discounts.<br><br>Classes in German preschool institutions are held only in a playful way. During them, children are taught to find a common language with their peers. In addition, great attention is paid to the development of speech and figurative thinking. There are forest kindergartens.<br><br>Due to the large number of migrant children, all kindergarten children who have reached the age of four are tested for their knowledge of the German language. Children who have not coped with the assignments attend additional classes free of charge.<br>School education<br>School education in Germany is universal and free. A 10-year education is required. In general, the school system is for 12-13 years. Today, there are about 50 thousand schools in Germany, in which more than 12.5 million students study. The school education system is subdivided into three stages: primary, secondary 1st stage and secondary 2nd stage.<br><br>All children who have reached the age of six begin their education in primary school (German: Grundschule). Primary school lasts four years (four classes), the load is 20 to 30 hours per week. There were approximately 3 million schoolchildren in primary school in 2008<br>Secondary education<br>Secondary education (secondary I) continues until grade 10.<br><br>After primary school, children are divided, mainly according to their ability, into four different groups.<br><br>The weakest students are sent for further education in the „main school“ (German: Hauptschule), where they study for 5 years. The main goal of this school is to prepare for low-skilled professional activities. Basic education is given here. Average workload 30-33 hours per week. After graduating from main school, a young German can start working or continue his studies in the vocational education system. Pupils with average results go to a „real school“ (German: Realschule) and study there for 6 years. After graduating from a real school, you can get a job, and the most capable can continue their studies in the 11th and 12th grades of the gymnasium. There are also auxiliary schools. V special school children with mental or physical developmental disabilities study. Here they receive only the most elementary knowledge of general education subjects and master any specialty for further work in production.<br><br>In the gymnasium, the student receives an education of the classical type. After graduating from the gymnasium, a matriculation certificate is given, which gives the right to enter the university.<br><br>Secondary education of the second stage (secondary II) is carried out only in the gymnasium in the 11th and 12th grades. Students of the thirteenth grade of the gymnasium are considered applicants. In the thirteenth grade of the gymnasium, students prepare for their studies in higher educational institutions. At the end of the thirteenth grade of the gymnasium, students take exams in basic school subjects (German Abitur). The level of education in the 12th and 13th grades and the level of the final examinations in the gymnasium are very high. There are no entrance examinations for higher education institutions in Germany. Admission is carried out in accordance with the average mark in the certificate, as well as taking into account some social factors. If there are more applicants for training at a higher educational institution than places, then the best are accepted, and the rest are enrolled in the queue; they can get a place to study next year.<br><br>Secondary education in Germany is represented by vocational schools, vocational schools and higher vocational schools.<br><br>Germany is under constant criticism from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development for its policy in the field of education. The government has not yet taken measures to eliminate the identified problems in the education system[каких?]… According to the calculations of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the Federal Republic of Germany’s expenditures on education are below average. At the same time, there is an imbalance in the financing of educational institutions. While primary school costs are relatively low, there is a lot of investment in higher education. According to experts, Germany may suffer further losses if educational reform is not implemented.<br>Higher education<br>The German higher education system is distinguished by a variety of types of institutions. In total, there are 376 universities in Germany, of which 103 are universities and 176 universities of applied sciences. Until recently, getting the first higher education in almost all universities was free for both Germans and foreigners. Since 2007, students at some universities are required to pay approximately € 500 per semester, plus the usual fee (which has been in place for much longer and everywhere), approximately € 150, which includes a travel card, use of libraries, etc. In the western federal states controlled by the party CDU, students who exceed the prescribed period of study by several semesters are generally required to pay tuition fees. These reforms in the education system were regulated by the relevant law.<br><br>Since the coming to power of the SPD in North Rhine-Westphalia, following an election promise in this land, the tuition fee of 500 euros per semester has been canceled since 2011. This was followed by other federal states of the West and South of Germany. The number of students is almost 2 million, of which 48% are women, 250,000 are foreign students. The teaching staff is about 110 thousand people. Approximately 120,000 Germans study abroad.<br><br>A significant number of universities are state-owned and subsidized by the government. In addition, there are 69 private universities.<br><br>There are no entrance examinations for admission to a university. The applicant is required to successfully pass the final exams at school or gymnasium. When applying for training in prestigious specialties, the GPA of the applicant’s school certificate is of decisive importance.<br><br>The start of semesters at German universities differs depending on the land, but these differences are usually small.<br><br>Those wishing to study at institutes (Fachhochschule) submit documents directly there. Here, too, selection takes place on the basis of certificates.<br><br>In Germany, university rankings are regularly determined, taking into account the conditions of study and the level of teaching staff, as well as the likelihood of finding a job after graduating from a particular university.<br><br>Parents of all students under the age of 25 in Germany are entitled to a so-called „children’s money“ (Kindergeld) in the amount of 184 euros. Students, taking into account their own income and the income of their parents, can receive an interest-free study loan („BAföG“). Half, but not more than 10,000 euros, of this loan must then be returned to the state (graduates who have a child in the first year after graduation are exempted from this obligation).<br><br>In addition to the student loan, in Germany there are many by various funds – there are party funds and the Fund of the German People, funds of churches, state governments, departments of the German government, as well as small regional organizations. Scholarships are usually designed for a specific category of students, for example, especially gifted students. Scholarships are available for both and international students. The main organization that issues scholarships for foreigners is the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD). The following major foundations: Konrad Adenauer Stiftung, Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, NaFög (Foundation of each State) grant scholarships only for writing a Dissertation (Promotionsstudium).<br>The science<br>Research in Germany is carried out in universities and research associations, as well as in corporate research centers. Scientific research at universities is funded from the federal budget, from the state budget and from funds allocated by enterprises. A year, 9.2 billion euros are spent on research at universities.<br><br>Research in Germany is also carried out by four major scientific associations: the Max Planck Society, the Helmholtz Association, the Fraunhofer Society and the Leibniz Society.<br><br>The Max Planck Society has about 13 thousand employees, including 5 thousand scientists, the annual budget of the society is 1.4 billion euros.<br><br>The Helmholtz Association has about 26.5 thousand employees, of which 8 thousand are scientists, the annual budget is 2.35 billion euros.<br><br>The Fraunhofer Society has about 12.5 thousand employees, the budget is 1.2 billion euros.<br><br>The Leibniz Society has 13.7 thousand employees, the budget is 1.1 billion euros.<br>