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    <br><br>Sambhaji (May 14, 1657 – March 11, 1689) – the second ruler of the Maratha state.<br>Biography<br> was the eldest son of the founder of the Maratha state, Shivaji, by his first wife, Saibai. His mother died when he was only two years old, and he was brought up by Shivaji’s mother, Jijabai. At the age of nine, he was sent hostage to the court of Jai Singh I as a guarantee of his father’s compliance with the terms of the Purandar Treaty. In 1666, he appeared with his father in front of the Aurangzeb court in Agra, where they were placed under house arrest, but managed to escape.<br><br>For political purposes, his father married to Yesubai, which gave Shivaji access to the coast of the Arabian Sea. The irresponsible behavior of his son forced Shivaji to imprison him in the Panhala fort in 1678, but he managed to escape from there with his wife. He spent about a year with the Mughals, after which he returned home and was again imprisoned in Panhala.<br><br>In early April 1680, while Sambhaji was still in prison, Shivaji died. His widow Soyrabay (Sambhaji’s stepmother) wanted her own 10-year-old son, Rajaram, to take the throne, and on April 21 she crowned him. Learning about this, Sambhaji captured the Panhala fort, then the Raigad fort, and on July 20, 1680 formally took the throne; Soyrabay, Rajaram and his wife Jankibay were thrown into prison. In October 1680, Soyrabai was executed on conspiracy charges.<br><br>In the same year, Aurangzeb invaded the Deccan, and Sambhaji got involved in a conflict with the Siddi.However, he did not manage to take their fortified island Janjira, and in 1682 they preferred to attack another seaside fortress – Anjadiva, but were repulsed by a detachment of 200 Portuguese. Then in 1683 Sambhaji attacked Goa, and was close to victory, but in early 1684 the Mughal army approached, forcing him to retreat. Realizing the shortage of firearms and explosives, Sambhaji in 1684 signed an agreement for their supply with the British in Madras.<br><br>Back in 1681, Sambhaji tried to invade the principality of Mysore, but was repulsed. Nevertheless, in 1682-1686, Mysore paid tribute to the Marathas, but then went over to the side of the Mughals and to fulfill the agreements, after which in 1686 the Marathi invaded there again.<br><br>From 1687, the Mughals began to crush the forces, and in February 1689 they managed to capture Sambhaji himself. After that, Sambhaji was executed with a terrible death: he was tortured and dismembered.<br>

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